Finally the time has come long-awaited trip out of the country. Plans have begun for a long time: airline tickets, hotel reservations, car rental, sightseeing plans. The bags are pulled from the attic to be packed and the excitement mounted with each passing day. Everything is going to go.
But wait – that the vaccine?
This is another training, which is necessary to make a list of "to do"? Traveling out of the country may feel the risk to another planet. Images of exotic places, combined with new dishes curious dance on the travel pages. Predicting the unexpected can be a challenge even for the most seasoned traveler. However, traveling with children adds an additional expression of anxiety – the idea that your child gets sick in a foreign country is extremely frightening. The doctor recommends a variety of vaccines. Are they necessary? How do you assess the risks?
hepatitis B It is a viral infection that is spread through blood contact. In the US, hepatitis B mainly occurs in adults and is spread through intimate contact or division of the needles used illicit drugs. Hepatitis B is more common in the general population in East and South-East Asia and in Africa south of the Sahara. Nevertheless, the risk of developing long-term complications is much less than we usually think. More than 95 percent of cases of hepatitis B, a full recovery, and infection lead to lifelong immunity this person. If you do not want to spend long periods in close contact with infected people, the risk of contracting hepatitis B in the travel time is very short.
polio is an infectious disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. The disease manifests itself primarily in children under five years of age; Initial symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. As a result of paralysis of about 1 to 2 percent of the children infected with a viral infection, although the vast majority completely cured of this paralysis. A few, however, continue to live severely disabled.
Polio is virtually eliminated. Once common throughout the world, which is not developed, as of February 2006, only four countries still celebrate isolated outbreaks: Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. In addition, in the Western Hemisphere & # 39; and there was no wild polio cases since 1991.
Polio vaccination of children continues in the US, with 5 doses are given before entering school (1) citing the fact that as long as polio is completely eradicated, the risk of re-introduction of polio in this country, "only on the plane." However, examination of the data indicates only six cases of imported polio documented between 1980 and 1998, the last in New York in 1993. (2) The risk of polio infection home negligible; Risks abroad are almost the same.
tetanus It is an acute, spastic paralytic disease caused by a toxin that is released from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The bacterium is found in soil and animal feces everywhere. Neonatal tetanus and the most deadly type that is most often depicted in the cases of tetanus. However, the vast majority of these cases occur after the delivery and use of non-sterile equipment for perarezki cord. While other forms of tetanus with & # 39 suras are & # 39; oznym disease, recovery from the & # 39 is the norm. In other words, not from tetanus 39 & # is uniformly fatal disease. If you are traveling to remote areas, such as backpacks in areas without medical assistance and without clean water, you may want to consider carefully their condition tetanus.
However, a word of caution: the shooter from tetanus does not guarantee protection. In a study published CDC (Centers for Disease Control) in 1997, 13% of people who become ill with tetanus, there were four or more vaccinations against tetanus. (3) Your best protection against tetanus – a thorough cleansing wounds plenty of warm soapy water and promote injury within a few minutes to bleed profusely. Use of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning of wounds with subsequent local antibiotic ointment such as Neosporin.
What about EKZOTYCHNYH ill?
When traveling abroad, you may encounter some diseases that are not commonly found in the United States. following infection by disease control centers list as a possible problem for those traveling to any destination around the world the world:
Tyfavaya fever, Acute febrile disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, is characterized by fever, headache, and enlarged spleen. The greatest risk is for travelers to the Indian subcontinent and in developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, which will be a long stay potentially cold products.
yellow fever a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes, which can Var & # 39; iravatstsa in severity from influenza syndrome to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever. The disease occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa and rural, tropical South America.
Japanese encephalitisAnother viral infection which is spread by mosquitoes, is found throughout Asia, particularly in rural or agricultural areas of China's temperate region, Japan, Korea and eastern Russia. The risk for short-term travel in the city is very low.
For all of these potential infections very important to get a natural repellent against mosquitoes, which does not contain of DEET, toxic additives found in most insect repellents. Made Royal Neem. It does not contain chemical substances and comprises a plurality of natural components.
hepatitis A a viral disease that has onset of fever and diarrhea followed by jaundice (yellowing) for several days. Disease var & # 39; iruetstsa in clinical severity from mild to no symptoms of disease that lasts from one to two weeks. Although endemic worldwide, hepatitis A can be prevented by carefully observing hygiene and performing a few food recommendations:
1. Eat only cooked foods, hot to the touch. Avoid eating food from street vendors.
2. Avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables unless you do not peel.
3. Drink only "safe" drinks: sealed bottled water, hot tea, coffee, beer, wine and boiled water; Avoid iced drinks.
5. Avoid eating syraga or lean meat and seafood (risk of hepatitis).
6. Avoid all tap water and be careful if water gets into the shower in her mouth. During dinner, the restaurant asked if Washed greens salad in boiled, distilled or bottled water.
7. Avoid milk and dairy products of unknown cooling standards.
What is recommended? WHAT TO
Although the CDC recommends that all travelers receive vaccines during a trip abroad, it is important to understand that, except for exceptions, the vaccine is not required anywhere in the world before the trip: they are only "recommended". In order to enter the country, you do not need to be vaccinated, and you will not need to receive a vaccine for the return home. The only exception – the yellow fever vaccineThat may be necessary if you are traveling to or from the South American and African countries, infected with yellow fever. Recommendations may Var & # 39; iravatstsa depending on the country; if a destination is included in your travel plans, you should look for the requirements of "yellow fever" for that particular country. (4)
I do most of my adult life engaged in the globe. Over the past 25 years, I visited more than 40 countries. I never asked to record vaccine, and I never needed vaccines, even when driving to remote, exotic locations.
Final advice? Do not forget to pack your passport, sunglasses and favorite book. Have fun and do not risk to be ill before moving on for a few shots.